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  EVENTS
1812 Charles Dickens born.
Britain at war with France and United States.
1815 Napoleon Bonaparte defeated by Wellington at Waterloo.
Corn Laws enacted in Britain, preventing entry of cheap grain and keeping farm wages low and bread prices high.
1819 Birth of Victoria.
1820 Death of old, mad King George III. The Prince Regent becomes George IV.
1829 Opening of Liverpool-Manchester Railway, the first railway between two major cities and the beginning of railroad expansion
First police force -- the "Bobbies."
1830 Death of George IV. Ascension of William IV, "Sailor Billy."
1832 Reform Bill enacted, eliminating rotten boroughs and corruption in Parliament elections and giving votes to £10 householders, thereby extending power to the middle class.
1833 Slavery abolished in British Empire.
1836 Dickens writes Pickwick, receives instant fame.
1837 William IV dies.
Victoria ascends throne; Victorian age begins.
1840 Victoria marries Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, who brings to England the first Tannenbaum, or Christmas tree.
1842 Dickens visits America, returns disillusioned.
1843 Dickens writes A Christmas Carol.
Beginning of music halls.
1846 Corn Laws repealed.
1847 Potato famine in Ireland; thousands starve and emigrate.
Ten Hours Bill enacted, limiting the work day to 10 hours.
1848 First Public Health Act in Britain.
Gold discovered in California.
Europe is rocked by short-lived revolutions; Paris, Berlin, and Vienna run with blood.
Louis Napoleon, nephew of the Emperor, becomes President of France.
England remains stable, and 1846-1866 is a period of quiet Whig rule.
1851 Gold discovered in Australia.
The Great Exhibition opens near London in the Crystal Palace.
1852 Dickens begins public readings.
Duke of Wellington dies.
Louis Napoleon declares himself Emperor Napoleon III; he is not taken seriously.
1854 Yorkshire mill owner builds "model village" near his factory for his workers.
Crimean War begins, Britain versus Russia over Turkey (Charge of the Light Brigade, Florence Nightingale, abysmal hospital conditions with death rate of wounded at 42%).
1857 Great mutiny in India; British outrage over massacres sends troops to crush vestiges of Indian independence; India ruled by Britain until 1948.
Transatlantic Telegraph cable between England and America.
1859 Charles Darwin publishes Origin of Species to general uproar.
1860 The Civil War begins in America. Britain is divided between economic sympathy for the South (which supplies cotton to British mills) and moral sympathy for the North (which is battling a slave society). Lincoln is considered a backwoods geek.
1861 Prince Albert dies; Victoria mourns until her death in 1901.
Italy becomes a United Kingdom.
Russian serfs are emancipated.
1863 Lincoln emancipates slaves.
1865 Founding of the Salvation Army.
1867 Reform Bill enacted, extending voting rights to most working-class males.
1868 Dickens ' second trip to America; his readings net him £20,000.
1870 Charles Dickens dies of a stroke at age 58, having completed 14 major novels.
  INVENTIONS
1830 First railroad and long distance telegraph line within England
1838 First steamship crosses Atlantic
Beginning of Daguerreotypes
1840 Vulcanized rubber developed
1843 First Christmas card
1846 First operation performed under anesthesia in Britain
1847 First toy rubber balloons
First municipal water supply (Manchester)
1850s Steam-powered ships beginning to overtake sailing ships
1854 Bessemer process for production of steel
1855 First safety matches
1858 First ironclad ship completed
1859 First asphalt street surface
1860 First practical internal combustion engine
1862 Pasteur's work proved connection between bacteria and disease
1866 Transatlantic telegraph cable
1869 First bicycle manufacturing plant
1870 First typewriter
 
WRITERS    
1775-1817
Jane Austen    
1816-1855
Charlotte Bronte    
1818-1848
Emily Bronte   ART
1788-1824
George Byron 1819-1877 Courbet
1809-1849 Edgar Allen Poe 1808-1879 Daumier
1811-1863 Wm. M. Thackeray 1798-1863 Delacroix
Mark Twain 1835-1910 1832-1883 Dore
    1848-1903 Gauguin
  MUSIC 1775-1851 Turner
1770-1827 Beethoven 1853-1890 Van Gogh
1803-1869 Berlioz    
1820-1887 Jenny Lind    
1809-1847 Mendelsohn